Domain 2. Nutrition
Class 1. Ingestion
Diagnostic Code: 00271
Nanda label: Ineffective infant feeding dynamics
Diagnostic focus: Feeding dynamics
Introduction to Nursing Diagnosis Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
Nursing diagnosis is an important element in providing supportive and effective care for patients. Nursing diagnosis may provide an explanation of a patient’s problem and guide nurses in their treatment plan process and their provision of interventions. Nursing diagnosis of ineffective infant feeding dynamics is particularly important in newborn and infant healthcare since the ability to feed can be essential to an infant’s health and development.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
NANDA definition states that Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics is defined when the infant’s or the caregiver’s behaviors interfere with the appropriate intake of food. The diagnostic definition also explains that this nursing diagnosis may be related to multiple causes including the infant’s developmental level, the behavior of the infant during feeding, the emotional state of the infant, the technique of the caregiver, the identification of signs of the infant’s satiation (feeding readiness), the nature and quantity of the food and the environmental influences.
Defining Characteristics of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
Subjective defining characteristics include disinterest in feeding, prolonged duration in eating, early termination of meals, inadequate intake, refusal of food, and aggression due to being fed. Objective defining characteristics involve gagging, vomiting, discrepancy between weight gain and caloric intake, inadequate weight gain, and withdrawal from social contact.
Related Factors of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
There are many factors that can contribute to ineffective infant feeding dynamics. These factors include the age and developmental level of the infant, the type of nurturing the baby received from the caregiver, the technical skills used by the caregiver while supporting the infant, environmental distractions, and the physical conditions of both the infant and caregiver.
The age and developmental level of the infant can have a direct influence on feeding behavior. Babies and infants are at different levels of development, which means they may be too young to coordinate their movements in order to initiate, take part in and complete a meal. Even older infants may not have the necessary language skills to communicate their needs and preferences when it comes to feeding.
The type of nurture the baby receives from their caregiver can have a major effect on the relationship between them and their carer during feeding. If the baby does not see the act of feeding as enjoyable or secure it is highly likely that their feeding dynamics will become compromised.
The technical skills and training of the caregiver to support the infant during feeding are also important factors in considering infant feeding dynamics. If the caregiver is inadequately trained this could lead to a misalignment in the caregiver’s perception of what the baby needs from them and what the baby is actually receiving from them.
Environmental influences such as noise or intrusive sunlight can act as distractions for the infant during the feeding process, which can further impact the child’s appetite and digestion.
The physical conditions of the infant and the caregiver can also have an impact on the effectiveness of the feeding dynamic. Symptoms like colic, dental pain, reflux or gastroesophogeal problems in the baby can make the process of eating unpleasant, while fatigue and stress on the part of the caregiver can lead to mismanagement of the infant’s needs during a meal.
At Risk Population of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
Certain populations are more at risk of exhibiting ineffective infant feeding dynamics. These populations include premature babies, babies whose mothers had difficulty adapting to the role of motherhood, babies who have been subject to illnesses or medical procedures and babies who were exposed to drug abuse or any other kind of trauma during their prenatal period.
Associated Conditions with Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
Inadequate breastmilk production, malnutrition, dehydration, incorrect spiritual feedings, unbalanced nutrition due to limited desserts and inadequate caloric allowance.
Suggestions for Use of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
To help promote the effectiveness of the infant’s feeding dynamics, caregivers should observe infant behaviors and signals to better comprehend the infant’s desire. Educating parents and caregivers on the need for frequent small meals is essential as infants may need more frequent feeding than later childhood stages. Utilizing soothing techniques like gentle massage and clapping helps keep infants tone relaxed and more open to the act of feeding. Structuring the environment of the feeding session in a calm and comfortable setting can also play a big role in contributing to the effectiveness of the feedings. Moreover, promoting environmental safety measures around the feeding area like keeping toys away and clothing to a minimum can decrease the chances of distractions.
Suggested Alternative NANDA Diagnosis for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
NANDA suggests using alternative nursing diagnoses for ineffective infant feeding dynamics such as Readiness for Enhanced Parenting, Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements, Impairment feeding Oral Cavity or Alteration in Feeding Style (Sucking Style) as best practice for evidence-based practice for nursing.
Usage Tips for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
• Encourage the infant and caregiver to establish a secure relationship in order to create trust, safety and enjoyment of the process of feeding
• Adapt meal contents and/or schedule to suit the infant’s developmental needs
• Ensure that mealtime is soundproof to protect against distraction
• Provide plenty of positive reinforcement and praising
• Pull back and allow responsibility and decision-making to be handled by the parent or primary caregiver
• Check for any physical or medical issues that may interfere in successful meal times
NOC Outcomes for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
NOC Outcomes for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics include (but are not limited to):
• Nutrition Status: Food and Fluid Intake
This is a measure of the amount of food and liquids a person consumes. It plays an important role in assessing the effectiveness of feeding dynamic of an infant and can determine if nutritional needs are being met.
• Infant Nutrition
This outcome describes the infant’s ability to effectively consume and digest nutrition and measures the growth and development of the infant.
• Feeding Self-Care Management
This outcome measures the infant’s ability to consume both solids and liquids in an efficient way. It also assesses the ability to coordinate the process of chewing, swallowing, and breathing when eating.
• Swallowing Function
This outcome measures the effectiveness of the infant’s swallowing function, which can contribute to the success or failure of their mealtime experience.
• Risk for Readiness for Enhanced Parenting
This outcome evaluates the caregivers awareness and implementation of evidence-based care practices. Preparing and providing optimal care to the infant is essential for proper medical intervention and involves embracing parenting roles with enthusiasm and skill.
Evaluation Objectives and Criteria for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
• Evaluate the infant’s ability to self-regulate their meals
• Determine if the infant is able to complete a full meal
• Assess the infant’s response to environmental stimuli
• Examine the caregiver’s technique and attitudes towards the feeding process
• Determine if both the infant and caregiver are developing an adequate relationship
• Observe any signs of malnutrition or dehydration
• Investigate any intrusive physical or medical conditions
• Observe the infant’s weight gain or losses
NIC Interventions for Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
• Breastfeeding Support
This intervention involves providing instruction and education to the infant’s caregiver in regards to proper infant feeding through breastfeeding. This includes appropriate positioning, latch and stimulation in order to ensure a positive feeding experience
• Feeding Assistance
This intervention includes guiding the infant and caregiver in safe, proper meal times. This includes teaching the caregiver how to properly hold the infant while feeding, basic behaviors to properly prepare the infant for meals, responding to the infant’s signals during meals, helping the infant transition into solids, and other basic mealtime instructions.
• Cyanosis and Apnea Education
Cyanosis is a medical condition that causes parts of the skin to look blue due to inadequate oxygen supply. Apnea is a medical condition that causes periods of abrupt cessation of breathing. This intervention focuses on educating the caregiver about these two conditions in relation to the infant’s health and safety. It stresses the need for constant surveillance, examining any symptom(s) of either conditions in witnesses.
Nursing Activities in Support of Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
• Observe and assess the infant’s response to meals and eating time
• Monitor the infant’s weight and growth as well as noting any deficiencies
• Instruct parents and caregivers on evidence-based technique to support the infant during mealtime
• Educate parents and caregivers on dietary considerations, such as those related to allergies and intolerances
• Recognize and respond to signs of physical discomfort exhibited by the infant
• Refer the infant and family to a specialist when necessary
Ineffective infant feeding dynamics can have a significant impact on the health and development of an infant. Knowing the factors that contribute to this condition as well as the various interventions available to support it can empower caregivers to create a more supportive feeding environment. Differentiating between the various interventions provides evidence-based care and promotes the healthy growth of the infant’s feeding dynamics.
FAQs about Ineffective Infant Feeding Dynamics
Q: How can I identify the signs and symptoms of ineffective infant feeding dynamics?
A: Signs and symptoms of ineffective infant feeding dynamics include a lack of interest in feeding, excessive duration chewing and eating, early termination of meals, inadequate food intake, and more. Caregivers should observe the infant’s behaviors and signals during mealtime and take note of any signs of distress.
Q: How do I encourage effective infant feeding dynamics?
A: To promote effective infant feeding dynamics, caregivers should build a solid relationship with the infant by providing positive reinforcement and praising during mealtime. Caregivers should also structure the mealtime environment in a calming and comfortable setting, educate themselves on the infant’s developmental needs, and incorporate soothing techniques like gentle massaging and claps.
Q: How often should I seek a professional assessment of my infant’s feeding dynamics?
A: It is recommended to check on your infant’s feeding dynamics periodically and to discuss potential issues with their healthcare provider. Feeding should be evaluated periodically to ensure that infant needs are being met.
Q: What kind of interventions can I use to support my infant’s feeding dynamics?
A: Different interventions can be used to promote effective infant feeding dynamics. Examples include breastfeeding support, feeding assistance, cyanosis and apnea education, and more. It is recommended to consult a healthcare provider for individualized interventions.