Domain 2. Nutrition
Class 1. Ingestion
Diagnostic Code: 00234
Nanda label: Risk for overweight
Diagnostic focus: Overweight
Introduction to Nursing Diagnosis Risk for Overweight
Risk for overweight is a NANDA nursing diagnosis that is defined as an individual’s potential susceptibility to an increase in body weight. It’s typically considered a predictor risk factor and is based on certain signs and symptoms. Healthcare providers work to identify those who are at an elevated risk for becoming obese or who are already overweight. Through the use of these interventions, patient outcomes can be improved and healthcare costs can be reduced.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition
The definition of the nurse-driven, evidence-based NANDA Risk for Overweight nursing diagnosis is that there’s an increased potential for higher-than-ideal body weight, which adds an additional health burden to a person’s overall wellbeing. This nursing diagnosis has been found to be applicable across all practice settings and populations; however, it’s particularly important to consider preventive measures in pediatric practice.
Several factors are related to being at an increased risk for developing obesity or having a higher body weight. These risk factors include:
• Genetics: Genetics is thought to play a role in approximately 25-35% of the obese population. Genes influence how fat cells convert excess energy into fat and how much energy the body burns during physical activity.
• Environment: The current obesogenic environment we live in creates issues with access and exposure to foods, enabling unhealthy behaviors such as relatively large portion sizes and poor food choices.
• Gender: Generally, women have higher body-weight than men. This can be attributed to hormonal and biological differences.
• Age: Increased age typically is associated with a steady increase in body weight. As we age, less physical exertion can contribute to weight gain.
At Risk Population
Those at an increased risk for having an elevated body weight include, but is not limited to the following:
• Individuals with metabolic syndrome: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by underlying various diagnoses, including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and prediabetes.
• The elderly population: As previously mentioned, aging typically increases body weight due to less physical exertion and other physiological processes that occur as we age.
• People with a family history of obesity: Those with a family history of obesity are potentially more likely to develop elevated body weight since they may have inherited genetic predispositions.
• Children and adolescents: Children, including pregnant and post partum mothers, are at an increased risk due to both environmental and biological factors.
Various conditions are often associated with obesity, including but not limited to:
• Cardiovascular diseases: Obesity puts an individual at an increased risk for developing high blood pressure, heart failure, coronary artery disease and more.
• Type 2 diabetes: This condition is closely correlated with being obese and having an elevated body mass index (BMI).
• Stroke: Those with obesity are at an elevated risk for having a stroke.
• Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: This condition commonly occurs in obese individuals, although it’s unclear why it does in some cases.
• Certain types of cancer: Obesity has been linked to various types of cancer such as breast, prostate, colon and endometrial cancer.
Suggestions of Use
health care providers should work to promote lifestyle changes and encourage safe and healthy habits in order to prevent and reduce overweight in their patients. This can involve assessing patient risk factors, as well as providing resources, support and education to establish healthier habits. Healthcare providers may also consider monitoring a patient’s progress over time in order to ensure that the interventions are effective.
Suggested Alternative NANDA Nursing Diagnograms
Some alternate Diagnograms to the Risk for Overweight Diagnogram can include:
• Activity Intolerance: This Diagnosis is defined as an inadequate physiological or psychological response to an activity, which can lead to an inability to meet the increased demands of daily activities.
• Imbalanced Nutrition: When an individual’s nutrient intake is not adequate, relative to their metabolic needs, it can lead to Imbalanced Nutritional Intake.
• Impaired Gas Exchange: If an individual’s lungs are unable to take in and circulate oxygen adequately, Impaid Gas Exchange can occur.
• Fatigue: Fatigue is a common symptom of obesity, and can result from doing daily activities.
• Readiness for enhanced Self Care: This Diagnosis is used to assess the level of preparedness a person has to make healthier decisions and changes in their life.
• When assessing a patient’s risk for overweight or obesity, consider the lifestyle, genetics, and environmental factors.
• Interventions should address the physical and psychological needs of the individual while promoting long-term lifestyle modifications.
• For an accurate assessment and diagnosis, consult the NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Manual and any other guides available to ensure proper information is collected.
• Develop a plan of care that coincides with the patient’s goals for health, considering their preferences and experiences.
• Encourage and monitor behavior change and provide reinforcement when needed.
• Encourage physical activity to maintain weight loss, if necessary.
Patients should work towards the following NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) Outcomes when managing Risk for Overweight:
• Nutritional Status: Upon completing treatment, a patient should be able to maintain their weight within their desired range.
• Health Behaviors: Patients should be able to demonstrate appropriate health behaviors, such as making healthier dietary choices or increasing physical activity as necessary.
• Self-Esteem: Patients should be able to develop greater self-esteem, recognizing their ability to make beneficial decisions.
• Well-Being: After treatment, a patient should be able to experience improved overall wellbeing.
Evaluation Objectives and Criteria
The evaluation objectives of a Risk for Overweight diagnosis are to assess:
• Factors related to eating habits, such as portion size and food selection.
• Dietary intake, such as fiber and calorie consumption.
• Activity level, including the amount of physical activity.
• Patient knowledge and understanding of their current nutrition and lifestyle.
• Psychological factors that may be influencing the patient’s decisions.
Criteria should include assessments of the patient’s behavior, although changes observed over time can be considered as well. As an example, if a patient’s activity level has decreased over time, this could be used as criteria for evaluation.
NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) interventions for the Risk for Overweight diagnosis include the following:
• Nutrition Counseling: Use diet education to assist the patient in developing healthier eating habits, followed by ongoing counselling as needed.
• Weight Management: Identify and address weight-related problems, along with initiating lifestyle changes.
• Anxiety Reduction: Provide activities and techniques that can help reduce stress levels, as stress can be a major contributor to unhealthy habits.
• Physical Activity Promotion: Encourage physical activity and provide resources available to the patient.
• Environmental Modification Monitoring: Ensure that the patient has easy access to nutritious foods and that their environment is supportive of healthy behaviors.
In order to help reduce the risk for overweight, nursing activities should include:
• Assessing the patient’s current nutritional intake and activity level.
• Discussing any limitations or special considerations the patient may have.
• Exploring resources and strategies the patient can use to make positive lifestyle changes.
• Providing patient and family education as needed.
• Supporting the patient in reaching their weight management goals.
Risk for overweight is an important NANDA nursing diagnosis that predicts a person’s potential for elevated body weight. By working to identify those at risk, healthcare professionals can intervene and provide interventions that address individual needs. This results in healthier patient outcomes and can also prevent some of the associated medical conditions from occurring.
Q1: What is Risk for Overweight?
A1: Risk for Overweight is a NANDA nursing diagnosis that is defined as an individual’s potential susceptibility to an increase in body weight.
Q2: What Are Some Risk Factors Related to Overweight?
A2: Several factors are related to being at an increased risk for developing obesity or having a higher body weight, such as genetics, environment, gender and age.
Q3: What Are Some Associated Conditions With Obesity?
A3: Various conditions are often associated with obesity and include cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, stroke and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Q4: How Can Healthcare Providers Address Overweight?
A4: Healthcare providers should work to promote lifestyle changes and encourage safe and healthy habits in order to prevent and reduce overweight in their patients. This can involve assessing patient risk factors, as well as providing resources, support, and education to establish healthier habits.
Q5: What Are Some Nursing Interventions to Address Overweight?
A5: Some NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) interventions for the Risk for Overweight diagnosis include Nutrition Counseling, Weight Management, Anxiety Reduction, Physical Activity Promotion and Environmental Modification Monitoring.